FROM: Bob Weisman, Earth Sciences
      St. Cloud State University

DATE: 1 December 2000

SUBJECT: The monsoons of November
        Saint Cloud November 2000 and fall weather summary

        The November 2000 average temperature at the Saint Cloud Municipal
Airport was a shockingly cold 28.6 degrees. What was shocking was NOT that it
was far from normal November (only 1.1 degrees below normal). The shock was, for
the first time in 3 years, we had close to normal temperatures during November.
November 1998 was 5 degrees warmer than this year and had the warmest
Thanksgiving on record; November 1999 was more than 8.5 degrees warmer than
this year, was the fourth warmest November on record, and broke the record
for the warmest November high temperature. On the other hand, November 2000
was more than 6 degrees warmer than November 1996, the 7th coldest November
on record, and more than 6 1/2 degrees warmer than November 1991, the 5th
coldest November on record.
        We did begin the month on the mild side, setting a new record for
warmest low for the entire month of November on the first. Also, on that
day, Minnesota had its 3rd reported November tornado and North Dakota
had its first tornado. We stayed in the warm southwesterly jet stream
through the 7th (more on that later), then began a streak of colder
than normal high temperatures which lasted most of the rest of the month.
There were 18 high temperatures of 32 degrees or colder, nearly double
the normal number (last year, we had none).
        November 7th also marked the first of 8 days with measurable snow.
The wet snowstorm on November 12-14 produced a snow cover which lasted the
rest of the month, a far cry from last year when the first persistent snow
cover did not occur until January. Daily snowfall records were set on both the
7th and the 13th (although the snow was so wet on the 13th that the snow depth
never was more than 2 inches). An unofficial total of 9.1 inches fell in
November 2000, more than 2 inches above normal. Even though the total is
above normal, there have been 5 years during the decade of 1999-2000 with
more than 10 inches of November snow, including the 21.3 inches during
November 1991, the 4th snowiest November on record.
        The one abnormal part of Saint Cloud's weather in November 2000 was
the melted precipitation. The November total was 3.24 inches, the 5th
highest total in the 108 years of Saint Cloud records. Two daily rainfall
records were set on the 1st (.93 inches) and the 6th (1.09 inches). Most
importantly, most of the precipitation fell before the ground froze, helping
to ease severely dry soil conditions somewhat. The November melted precipitation
was more than 1/2 inch higher than the combined September and October rainfall.
This year marked only the 15th time on record that November had the highest
precipitation total of the fall months. Five of these years happened during
this decade (1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000).
        The change from a mild and wet pattern to a cold and snowy pattern
was the result of a shift in the jet stream from a southwesterly flow
to a northwest flow. This shut off the mild, wet weather of late October and
early November, allowing colder air to filter in. With highs often in the
20's or lower 30's and the frequent light snowfalls, the last 2 weeks of
November often produced normal January-type weather, a far cry from
the early fall weather seen during the past two Novembers.
        The wet November brought the fall 2000 (Sep 1-Nov 30) rainfall
to within 1/2 inch of normal. Still, after the dry summer, much more
rain will be needed to replenish ground water. Overall, the fall temperatures
were very close to normal, which was quite a shock to those of us who
became used to the extraordinarily warm seasons of the past 3 years.

SUMMARY FOR NOVEMBER 2000               NOV 2000        NORMAL
Average high temperature ( F)            34.9            39.0
Average low temperature ( F)             22.3            20.3
Average temperature ( F)                 28.6            29.7
Number of days with high of 32 or less   18               9.3
Warmest high for this month ( F)         66 on the 1st
Coolest high for this month ( F)         19 on the 20th
Mildest low for this month ( F)          58 on the 1st (broke daily and
                                                        monthly record; see
Coldest low for this month ( F)          -3 on the 21st (broke record; see

Monthly record temperatures:
Record mild low:                         58 on the 1st (old record: 55 on
                                                           November 6, 1906)
Daily record temperatures:
Record mild low:                         58 on the 1st (old record: 51 in 1938)
Record cold low:                         -3 on the 21st (old record: -2 in 1929)

November                                  3.24            1.27
Greatest in 24 hours (Nov 2000)           1.09 on the 6th (broke record; see
Daily record rainfall:                    0.93 in on the 1st (old record:
                                                           0.86 in - 1974)
                                          1.09 in on the 6th (old record:
                                                           0.50 in - 1947)
November                                   9.1             6.8
Greatest in 24 hours                       3.0 on the 13th (broke record;
                                                           see below)
Season (2000-2001)                         9.1             7.3
Daily record snowfall:                     2.0 in on the 7th (old record:
                                                           0.7 in - 1968)
                                           3.0 in on the 13th (old record:
                                                           0.6 in - 1948)

SUMMARY FOR FALL (SEPT-NOV) 2000         FALL 2000       NORMAL
Average High Temperature (F)              55.8            55.2
Average Low Temperature (F)               35.9            33.4
Average Temperature (F)                   44.8            45.2
Liquid precipitation (in)                 5.77            6.29
Snowfall (in)                              9.1             7.3

     ST. CLOUD PRECIP--NOVEMBER  (106 YEARS; AVG =  1.26 IN; SDEV =  0.96 IN)

         WETTEST                           DRIEST

      4.16 IN  1922                     TRACE     1916
      4.02 IN  1931                     TRACE     1939
      3.83 IN  1996                      0.01 IN  1912
      3.74 IN  1977                      0.01 IN  1941
      3.24 IN  1975                      0.05 IN  1917
      3.24 IN  2000 <--TIED FOR 5TH      0.08 IN  1904
      3.14 IN  1940    WETTEST ON RECORD 0.14 IN  1967
      3.11 IN  1983                      0.14 IN  1976
      2.99 IN  1918                      0.16 IN  1942
      2.76 IN  1896                      0.17 IN  1984

Bob Weisman, Meteorology Professor      SUPERVISOR: Shirley (age 8)
Earth Sciences Department               PHONE: (320) 255-3247 (V)
MS 48                                          (800) 627-3529 (TTY via
Saint Cloud State University                        Minnesota Relay Service)
720 4th Avenue South                    FAX:   (320) 255-4262
Saint Cloud, Minnesota 56301-4498       EMAIL: scsweisman@tigger.


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Last modified: December 8, 2000